World over, manganese is the fourth most consumed metal by weight following steel, aluminium and copper and ranks twelfth on the list of most abundant minerals in the earth's crust. Over 90 percent of the world's production of manganese is utilized in desulphurization and strengthening of steel. The Manganese ore and alloy industry has historically derived its demand from the steel industry and hence is directly exposed to the volatility and the cyclicality of the global steel industry. The global reserves of the manganese ore (metal content) are estimated to be around 630 million tonnes with countries such as South Africa, Ukraine, Brazil, Australia and India together accounting for approximately 87 percent of the total reserves. Manganese ore is smelted to produce manganese ferroalloys (such as ferromanganese and silico manganese). Ferro alloys are mainly used in the iron and steel and other base metals manufacturing industries. Global ferro alloy production reached to around 45 million tonnes in CY11.
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